relevant literature

Description: 
The USPSTF recommendation on behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in primary care patients.
Source: 
US Pretentive Services Task Force
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Description: 
NRT aims to reduce withdrawal symptoms associated with stopping smoking by replacing the nicotine from cigarettes. NRT is available as skin patches that deliver nicotine slowly, and chewing gum, nasal spray, inhalers, and lozenges/tablets, all of which deliver nicotine to the brain more quickly than from skin patches, but less rapidly than from smoking cigarettes. This review includes 132 trials of NRT, with over 40,000 people in the main analysis. It found evidence that all forms of NRT made it more likely that a person's attempt to quit smoking would succeed. The chances of stopping smoking were increased by 50 to 70%. Most of the studies were performed in people smoking more than 15 cigarettes a day. What limited evidence there is suggests no overall difference in effectiveness of different forms of NRT nor a benefit for using patches beyond 8 weeks. NRT works with or without additional counselling, and does not need to be prescribed by a doctor. Heavier smokers may need higher doses of NRT. People who use NRT during a quit attempt are likely to further increase their chance of success by using a combination of the nicotine patch and a faster acting form. Preliminary data suggests that starting to use NRT shortly before the planned quit date may increase the chance of success. Adverse effects from using NRT are related to the type of product, and include skin irritation from patches and irritation to the inside of the mouth from gum and tablets. There is no evidence that NRT increases the risk of heart attacks. (From their website)
Source: 
Cochrane Collaboration
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Varenicline (Chantix®)

Description: 
For more complete information, please refer to the FDA package insert.

Varenicline is a quit-smoking medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration. It does not contain any nicotine. It is available as Chantix® and only by prescription. You can use it for up to 12 weeks. An additional 12 weeks may be recommended by your provider after successful cessation to help maintain abstinence.

How Well Does It Work?

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Nicotine Inhaler

Description: 
See FDA package insert for more complete information

Nicotine inhaler is available through prescription only. It consists of a mouthpiece and a cartridge. The cartridge contains 10 mg of nicotine. A dose is a puff or inhalation. The initial dosage is typically 1-2 doses per hour. Recommended dosage is a minimum of 8 doses and maximum of 40 doses per day. Recommended duration of use is up to 6 months, tapering during the final 3 months.



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Patient Handout: Bupropion Hydrochloride SR (Zyban®)

Description: 
See FDA package insert for more complete information.

Description, side effects, and instructions for the medicine Bupropion Hydrochloride SR (Zyban®) are presented below. For more complete information, you can refer to the FDA package insert for the medication.

Description

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Patient Handout: Physical Activity

Description: 
Details how ex-smokers are successful at quitting by getting involved in some kind of regular physical activity.

Do you find it hard to believe that exercise (something that is active) can help you quit smoking (something that is passive)? It's true. A lot of ex-smokers are successful at quitting by getting involved in some kind of regular physical activity.

Question: How do I know what kind of exercise to do?

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Smoking Cessation Cycle

Description: 
Smoking Cessation Cycle as referenced by Prochaska et al. 1992, 1993; Prochaska and DiClemente 1982

Contented User: A stage of pre-contemplation. No intention of taking action within the next 6 months. May be uninformed or underinformed of health consequences or may have attempted change many times and lost confidence that quitting is possible. Appears unmotivated or resistant to change.

Thinking About Quitting: A stage of contemplation. Intends to change in the next 6 months. Aware of pros and cons of changes. Profound ambivalence or behavioral procrastination can develop as the person balances the pros and cons.

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Description: 
Allows patients and treatment communities to search for local physicians and recovery programs that are authorized to prescribe and dispense opioid addiction treatment.
Source: 
CSAT, SAMHSA
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